Hello! and welcome to this presentation.
My name is Arely Herrera and today we willbe talking about Asthma.
So, what is asthma? It is categorized as a chronic inflammatoryobstructive disease of the airway.
It affects a person’s ability to inhaleand exhale and keeping a proper balance of oxygen in the body.
Typical symptoms include, shortness of breath,wheezing, tightness in the chest and persistent coughing.
According to the American College of Allergy,Asthma and Immunology, about 26 million Americans are affected and it is the leading cause forchildren and adults to miss school or work.
It is estimated that Asthma is higher in childrenwomen are most affected compared to their counterparts.
Let’s explore a normal airway.
As air enters the nasal passages aided bythe contraction of the diaphragm.
It is filtered or potential invaders by mucosafound throughout the nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, trachea and lungs.
Inside the lungs are bronchial tubes thatare surrounded by smooth muscle that also help the flow of air.
One the air has gone from the bronchiole tubes,it branches into alveoli.
Alveoli are the smaller air sacs that haveto must surface area where gases such as Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide are exchanged by diffusion.
Now, let’s talk about Asthma.
There are two types of asthma.
The first one is Intrinsic, this type of asthmais less understood because the antibody IgE is not involved in the inflammatory responses.
It is believed that has a genetic componentand thus less understood.
The second one is Extrinsic which is mostlycaused by environmental factors and exposures.
The antibody IgE is present and this antibodyis responsible for many of the inflammatory responses in asthma.
Also, it is more widely studied and understood.
In this presentation, we will be talking aboutextrinsic Asthma.
The Anatomy of Asthma, well as I mentionedbefore, when allergens are recognized by Immunity factors such as IgE.
Which in turn aid in the cascade for Mastcells to produce histamine and release it into the smooth muscle of the bronchiolescausing inflammation and thus obstruction.
Another process that occurs while the allergensare being engulfed by macrophages it sends a signal to the goblet cells found in theepithelium layer of the inside of the bronchioles to produce mucus to combat the allergen.
In this picture, we see how a normal airwaycompares to an asthmatic airway during an attack.
We see inflammation, overproduction of mucusand contraction of the smooth muscle surrounding the bronchiole leading to the decreased diameterof the lumen in which air can flow.
Here we see how constricted an asthmatic airwaylooks like leading to shortness of breath and wheezing.
And ultimately dyspnea or anaphylaxis if itis severe.
So, let’s talk about the causes.
Many allergens that are in our everyday livessuch as pet hair, mites and cockroaches, medications, mold, stress, cold air among others.
Also, the fact that we now live in more urbanareas, pollution is also a factor that causes asthma.
How is Asthma diagnosed.
While there is no specific diagnosis procedure,when coughing, wheezing, chest tightness and breathlessness are present in a patient hecan easily be diagnosed as asthmatic.
Another technique that is used to see howthe flow of air is affected by an asthma attack is called spirometry.
Using the spirometer, the patient blows andthe flow-volume is measured to see the capacity of the lungs.
Asthma can be treated by avoiding triggersall together.
However, for some individuals avoiding pollutionor pollen or any environmental factors can be challenging.
There are medications such as antihistaminesthat help patients avoid or decrease the inflammatory responses in the smooth muscle.
This medication has to be taken on a dailybasis or when exposed for a long period of time.
Also, there are meter inhalers to help patientswith acute attacks, such as albuterol that relax the smooth muscles surrounding the bronchioles.
Another type of inhaler is the corticosteroidinhaler that is used on a long-term treatment that decreases the inflammatory response inthe smooth muscle layer of the bronchioles.
There are also nebulizers that help patientsdecrease swelling and help with the mucous production.
Thank you so much for watching.
More Information: Asthma Attacks